Binding - The
process of fastening loose sheets of paper.
Bleed - An image or printed color that runs off the edge of the
paper. Bleeding increases the amount of paper needed, which usually will increase
the production costs. Bleeds are created by trimming the page to
size after the printing is completed.
- Use Dylux Definition
Burn - Exposing photosensitive media to light, as in burning a
plate in offset printing or making a dylux.
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Camera Ready -
The point in the printing process when the document is ready to be photographed or
scanned to make plates for the press. Elements of the document are in
their final position, and the proof has been approved.
Choke (Choking) - When a publication is printed with several
interacting spot colors, gaps or color shifts may appear between objects.
Choking closes this gap by slightly overlapping a dark color over the
boundary of a light color.
CMYK - Printers use CMYK - representing the colors cyan, magenta,
yellow, and black inks - when printing 4-color process work. These are
called subtractive colors, as combining them all gives the color black.
Subtracting one or more of these colors will yield another color. When
combined in various percentages, these four inks will create an entire
spectrum of colors, including those used in color photographs.
Coated Paper - Paper with a layer of coating applied to one or both
sides, such as gloss, dull or matte finishes. Dot gain is significantly
less on coated papers providing sharper images and they are used
frequently in 4 color process work as well as in black and white
Color Key - A printer's proof that consists of four sheets of
colored acetate that represents the color separation process for a
Color Matching - A color sample book is used to match colors with
standard inks used by most printers. The printer will then prepare
separate printing plates for each color. The colors are chosen from those
provided by a color matching system, such as Pantone. Use of a color
matching system permits consistency of the color over time and among
Color Separation - The separation of full-color artwork or
transparencies into the four primary printing ink colors (CMYK).
Composite Image - A photograph or other image that is created
combination of multiple images on a single sheet.
Copy - The text
used in printed material.
Copyright - An exclusive right that has been granted by law to a
particular creative product.
Copywriter - Someone who writes copy for advertisements or other
Cropping - To reduce in size,
thereby removing undesirable elements
- The use of a computer to create documents that can be printed.
Specialized software is used to add copy and graphics to the document,
which is then outputted to a printer or typesetting equipment.
Die-Cutting - The use of a sharp, formed piece of metal to cut out
specific shapes in a piece of paper.
Digital - Data processed using the numbers 0 and 1 through on/off
Digital Camera - A type of camera that stores the photographed
images electronically rather than on film. The images are then downloaded into
a computer where they can be manipulated in a manner similar to scanned
images using special software.
Digital Printing - New printing technology in which electronic
files are used to create images on press. Typically used for on-demand
printing and to personalize documents. Generally used for short runs.
Dot Gain - The spread of ink on paper, causing the dots which make
up the image to print larger than they were on the film or plate. The
images may become distorted, appearing darker with less clarity.
Dots per Inch (DPI) - A measure of computer screen and printer
resolution that is referred to as the number of dots that a device can
print or display per inch. The more dots per inch, the sharper the image.
Duotone - A two-color halftone of the same image created by using
two screens, two plates, and two colors.
Dylux - A printer's proof made by exposing light sensitive paper to
the film that will be used to produce printing plates. Also known as a
Emboss - The
creation of a raised (embossed) image by pressing a shape into a sheet of
paper with a metal or plastic die.
Emulsion - The chemically treated side of photographic film.
Engraved Printing - A printing process using recessed plates. Ink
sits in the recessed wells of the plate, and when pressure is applied,
raised letters and images appear on the front of the page.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) - A computer graphics file format
developed by Adobe Systems that usually contains object-oriented files.
Protocol (FTP) - Computer software that permits the exchange of
information between computers.
Foil Stamping - The application of foil to paper. May also be
combined with embossing for added interest.
Four Color Process - A method of printing that uses dots of
cyan, magenta, yellow and black to recreate the continuous tones and
variety of colors in a color image.
Graphic - An item to be printed that is not copy; includes
photographs and illustrations
Graphic Design - The use of graphic elements and text to
communicate an idea or concept.
Graphic Designer - The person who develops graphic designs.
Halftone - The
method by which photographs and other images are printed by using cells of
dots to simulate the tones between light and dark. A printing press is not
able to change the tone of ink, therefore dots of color are used to trick
the eye into seeing a continuous tone image. To accomplish this, the photo
is processed with a screen that breaks the image into tiny dots. The
closer the lines of the screen, the smaller the dots and the more dots per
inch (dpi), leading to a crisper image.
Someone who develops original artwork for use in commercial applications.
Imagesetter - A high resolution output device for producing film
used to create plates for a printing press.
Imposition - The process of arranging the pages of copy so that
when the sheets are printed and folded for binding the pages will be in
the proper order.
JPEG - A
computer graphics file format that is not typically used in printing due
to low resolution.
Leading - The
space between lines of type, measured from the baseline of one line to the
baseline of the next. The quantity is measured in points, such as 6 point
type, 8 point, etc. Each point equals approximately 1/72th of an inch.
Lines Per Inch (LPI) - The number of lines or rows of dots there
are per inch in a screen and therefore in a screen tint, halftone, or
Lupe - A magnifying lens used by printers to examine the details of
printed materials. Use of a lupe permits an individual to see the
individual color halftone dots used in process color printing.
Moiré - A
blurry pattern created by printing several repetitive designs on top of
each other. In 4-color process printing, this pattern is created when the
halftone screen of each color is not properly aligned or a screen is
applied to an already screened image.
- An indirect printing process whereby ink is transferred to the paper by
a blanket that carries an impression from the printing plate, rather than
directly from the plate itself. This is the most common method of
commercial printing at this time.
OCR (Optical Character Recognition) - Software that translates
images of scanned text characters into characters that can be manipulated
in a computer as text but not as images.
- A binding process whereby single sheets are stacked together, the
binding edge is ground to create a rough surface, and adhesive is applied.
A cover is then wrapped around the pages.
PDF - Stands for Portable Document Format. This is the next
generation of files for the prepress workflow. PDF files are made by
taking postscript files through Adobe Acrobat Distiller which embeds all
fonts and graphics and can still be edited by a prepress department.
Photocopy - A reproduction process that uses a light sensitive
printing element, toner, and heat to fuse the toner to the paper to
produce the copy.
Photo Illustration - An image produced by the use of one or more
Pixel - Short for picture element. These are the dots that form the
picture on a monitor. The smaller the pixel, the more detailed the
Pixel Depth - The amount of data used to describe the colored dots
on a computer monitor.
PMS (Pantone Matching System) - An ink color matching system
created by Pantone.
Point - Equivalent to 1/72th of an inch, points are the units of
measurement of type, such as 6 point, 10 point, etc.
Postscript - Postscript fonts have very smooth edges and are used
in most printing applications. Writing Postscript is similar to sending
files to an office printer, but the information is collected in an
electronic file that can be read by prepress computers which RIP files
prior to output. Postscript files can be converted into PDF format.
PrePress - The processes performed on a printing order prior to its
going to the press to be printed. Examples are file preparation, file
modification, preparing film, stripping, creating proofs and making
plates. Most up to date prepress operations have or are converting to all
digital processes and work with customer provided electronic files.
Printing Plate - A thin object (plate) made of either metal or
paper which is light sensitive and causes an image to be transferred to
paper while on a printing press. The image is burned onto the plate by the
use of high intensity light. The surface of the plate is treated or
configured so that only the printing image is receptive to the ink which
transfers to the printed object.
Proof - A method of checking for errors prior to printing an order.
A press proof is used by the printing press operator to ensure the
correctness of the finished product during the production of the order.
Process Color - One of the four colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and
black) that is used in producing full-color images, such as color
Raster Image Processor (RIP)
- Hardware and software which translates data into a series of dots for
Registration - Putting two or more images together so that they are
exactly aligned, and the resulting image is well defined.
Resolution - The number of picture elements (pixels) per unit of
linear measurement (normally an inch) on a computer monitor, or the number
of dots per inch (dpi) in printed form.
RGB - RGB (red, green, and blue) are called additive colors because
added together they may create all colors. Typically, RGB is used for
slide presentations, computer software and games, and anything that is
viewed on a video monitor.
- The binding of sheets of paper to form a book by use of staples or
stitching through the spine.
Score - To press a channel into paper to facilitate folding.
Sheet-fed Press - A press that prints single sheets of paper, as
opposed to a web press.
Spot Color - A single color ink or varnish applied to printed
material. Primarily used when process colors are not appropriate. The
effective use of spot color can add heightened interest to printed
materials without incurring the cost of process colors.
Spread - When a publication is printed with several interacting
spot colors, gaps or color shifts may appear between objects. A spread
closes the gap by overlapping a light foreground object to a dark
A finishing technique applied after printing that raises the ink and gives
the effect of engraved printing.
TIFF - A high-resolution graphics file that is commonly used in
printing for photographs and illustrations.
Trapping - The deliberate overlap of adjacent colors, using chokes
and spreads, to eliminate gaps between adjacent colors. Trapping is done
through computer software and the overlap is minute, not normally visible
to the naked eye.
Varnish - A
coating added on top of paper to serve as protection, or enhance
appearance. Varnishes are very effective in adding emphasis or eye-appeal
to printed material. Gloss and dull varnishes are available.
Web Press - A
high run, fast speed printing press that uses rolls of paper rather than