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Print Glossary: A - E

A
  • A/W - An abbreviation for Artwork.
  • Absorbent paper - A variety of papers that are made to absorb water and links in varying degrees, such as duplicating, blotting, toweling, and filter papers.
  • Acetate - A transparent sheet placed over artwork allowing the artist to write instructions or indicate where second color is to be placed. See Overlay.
  • Accordion fold - Paper that is folded two or more times in a parallel direction similar to the bellows of an accordion.
  • Acid-free paper - A paper having no acidity and no residual acid-producing chemicals. Acid-free papers may also be slightly on the alkaline side to provide greater longevity.
  • Against the grain - Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the lie of the paper fibers.
  • Air - An amount of white space in a layout.
  • Align - To line up typeset or other graphic material as specified, using a base or vertical line as the reference point.
  • Anti-aliasing - The rendering of hard-edged objects so they blend smoothly into the background. A technique for merging object-oriented art into bitmaps.
  • Antique finish - Book or cover paper made with very little calendaring to preserve its rough finish and bulk.
  • Apron - Additional white space allowed in the margins of text and illustrations when forming a foldout.
  • Art paper - A smooth coated paper obtained by adding a coating of china clay compound on one or both sides of the paper.
  • Artwork - A general term used to describe photographs, drawings, paintings, hand lettering, and the like prepared to illustrate printed matter.
  • Ascender - Any part of a lower case letter extending above the x-height. For example, the upper half of the vertical in the letters b or h.
  • Authors Alterations (AA) - Changes made to the copy by the author after typesetting but not including those made as a result of errors in keying in the copy.
  • Auto flow - In some computer applications, the ability to flow text automatically from one page to another or one column to another.

B
  • Backing up - To print the second side of printed sheet. Also, to make a duplicate of a computer file as a precaution against losing the original.
  • Back matter - Also known as end matter.
  • Back slant - Typeface that slants backward, i.e. opposite to italic, which slopes forward. The effect can be obtained by many headline machines and computer typesetters.
  • Bad break - Awkward, unattractive or illegible hyphenation of a word at the end of a line of type.
  • Banding - A visible stair-stepping of shades in a gradient.
  • Bank - A lightweight writing paper.
  • Banner - A large headline or title extending across the full page width.
  • Bar code - A pattern of vertical lines of varying thickness identifying details of a product, conforming to the Universal Product Code (UPC).
  • Barrel fold - When the paper is folded two or more times in the same direction, sometimes called a wrap-around fold.
  • Base artwork - Artwork requiring additional components such as halftones or line drawings to be added before the reproduction stage.
  • Baseline - The line on which the bases of capital letters sit.
  • Basis weight - The weight of a ream (500 sheets) of paper in the basic size of the grade. The basis weight is determined by weighing a properly conditioned and exactly dimensioned sheet of paper.
  • Bezier curves - In object-oriented programs, (such as Freehand, Illustrator, or Photoshop) a curve whose shape is defined by points set along its arc.
  • BF - Abbreviation for bold face.
  • Binding - The various methods used to secure loose leaves or sections in a book; eg saddle-stitch, perfect bound.
  • Bitmapped - An image formed (or appearing to be formed) by a rectangular grid of pixels. The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (black or white), to as much as 24 or 30 bits per pixel for full color images. Also used to refer to an image that has too low of a resolution or line screen for the output resolution (“That image looks bitmapped.”; line art scanned at 72dpi when it is to be printed at 2540dpi will be very coarsely bitmapped).
  • Bitmap Image (bmp) - A graphic image stored as a specific arrangement of screen dots, or pixels. Web graphics are bitmap images. A graphic which is defined by specifying the colors of dots or pixels which make up the picture. Also know as raster graphics. Common types of bitmap graphics are GIF, JPEG, Photoshop, PCX, TIFF, Macintosh Paint, Microsoft Paint, PNG, FAX formats, and TGA.
  • Bitmapped font - A font made up of bitmapped letters, characterized by jagged edges, as opposed to the smooth edges of an outline font.
  • Blanket - A sheet made of rexine or rubber that covers the impression cylinder of a press.
  • Blanket cylinder - The cylinder via which the inked litho plate transfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber sheet which prevents wear to the litho plate coming into contact with the paper.
  • Bleed - Layout, type, or pictures that extend 1/8” beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as ‘bled off.
  • Blind emboss - A raised impression made without using ink or foil. Blind folio - page number counted for reference or identification but not printed on the page itself.
  • Blow up - An enlargement, most frequently of a graphic image or photograph.
  • Blueline proof - A proof made from the actual printing plates, so-called because of its blue color. A chance to get one more look at a printing job before it goes to the press.
  • Board - Paper of more than 200 gsm.
  • Body - The main text of the work but not including headlines.
  • Body type - Also called test type. Ranging normally from 6 pt. To 14 pt. It is generally used for text matter.
  • Bond - A sized finished writing paper of 50gsm or more. Can also be used for printing upon.
  • Book face - Weight of typeface suitable for large areas of text.
  • Book paper - A broad variety of paper suitable for printing. Used for book and advertising purposes. Surface finishes vary but include dull, matte, flossy, supercalendered, antique, wove, vellum, eggshell, etc.
  • Border- A continuous decorative design or rule surrounding the matter on the page.
  • Box - A section of text marked off by rules or white space and presented separately from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections in magazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.
  • Brightness - Measure of how much light is reflected off a printing paper.
  • Bronzing - An effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing with a metallic powder.

C
  • Calibration bars - On a negative, proof, or printed piece, a strip of tones used to check printing quality.
  • Caliper - The thickness of sheet of paper or board expressed in microns (millionths of a meter). Also the name of the tool used to make the measurement.
  • Callout - Labels, captions, or numbers used on illustrative work.
  • Camera ready - Artwork or pasted up material that is ready for reproduction.
  • Cap line - An imaginary line across the top of capital letters. The distance from the cap line to the baseline is the cap size.
  • Caps (or “All Caps”) - An abbreviation for capital letters.
  • Caps and small caps - A style of type that shows capital letters used in the normal way while the body copy is set in capital letters which are of a slightly smaller size.
  • Caption - Also called a cutline. The line or lines of text that refer to information identifying a picture or illustration.
  • Carbonless - Paper coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).
  • Caret marks - An indication to the printer of an omission in the copy indicated as ( ) showing the insertion.
  • Case bound - A hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather.
  • Cast coated - Art paper with an exceptionally glossy coated finish usually on one side only.
  • Cellulose acetate - Plastic sheet material, usually transparent or translucent, available clear or colored and with a shiny or matte finish; used as the basis of artwork and overlays, and is the base material of some photographic film.
  • Chalking - A powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing.
  • Chipboard - A single-ply cardboard, usually gray or brown in color. Frequently used as the backboard in padding. It is usually made from mixed, repulped paper stock.
  • Choke - A method of altering the thickness of a shape by overexposure in processing or by means of a built-in option in some computer applications.
    Cromalin - A fast proofing system which uses powder as opposed to ink.
  • Close up - A proof correction mark to reduce the amount of space between characters or words indicated as (‘).
  • CMYK - Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Black. The subtractive primaries, or process colors, used in color printing. Black (K) is usually added to enhance color and to print a true black. See subtractive primaries, four color process.
  • Coated - Printing papers which after making have had a surface coating with clay etc, to give a smoother, more even finish with greater opacity.
  • Collate - To gather separate sections or leaves of a book together in the correct order for binding.
  • Color bars - Strip of colors printed on the edge of four-color process proofs to check registration of all colors and to evaluate ink density.
  • Color break - In multicolor printing, the point where one ink color stops and another begins.
  • Color cast - A color cast changes the hue (color) of a selected part of an image while keeping the saturation and brightness intact. Viewing an image with a color cast can be similar to viewing it through colored lenses on eyeglasses. A commonly know color cast (in graphic design) is a duotone.
  • Color correction - The process of adjusting an image to compensate for scanner deficiencies or for the characteristics of the output device.
  • Color depth - The number of bits that determines the range of possible colors that can be assigned to each pixel. For example, an 8-bit color depth can create 256 colors.
  • Color palette - The selection of colors used in graphics software.
  • Color proof - A representation of what the final printed composition will look like. The resolution and quality of different types of color can vary greatly.
  • Color separations - The division of an image into its component colors for printing. Each color separation is a piece of negative or positive film. Four color or process separations result in 4 pieces of film (CMYK). Spot color separations result in 1 piece of film for each spot color.
  • Color transparency - A photographic image transparent film used as artwork. 35 mm, 4”x5” and 8”x10” formats are commonly used.
  • Column rule - A light faced vertical rule used to separate columns of type.
  • Comprehensive - Often referred to as a comp. An accurate layout showing type and illustrations in position, and suitable as a finished presentation.
  • Concertina fold - A method of folding in which each fold opens in the opposite direction to its neighbor, giving a concertina or pleated effect.
  • Condensed - A style of typeface in which the characters have a vertically elongated appearance.
  • Continuous tone - An image in which the subject has continuous shades of color or gray without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate the image into dots.
  • Contact print - Photographic print made by direct contact with the negative, as opposed to enlargement or reduction.
  • Continuous-tone copy - Image with a complete range of tones from black to white, e.g. photographs and paintings.
  • Copyright notice - A line such as “Copyright 2007 ACME Co.” that identifies a copyright holder.
  • Corrugated - Paperboard that is made of two sheets of paper or cardboard with a sheet of fluted or pleated paper sandwiched in between.
  • Cotton fiber paper - Sometimes called “rag” paper, made either wholly or in part of cotton fibers derived from textile clippings or cotton linters.
  • Cover paper - A heavyweight paper made particularly to protect contents and outwardly represent the printed piece such as covers of brochures, books, etc.
  • Crop marks - Lines printed showing the dimensions of the final printed page. These marks are used for final trimming.
  • Cropping - The elimination of parts of a photograph or other original that are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.
  • Crossover (aka Gutter bleed) - When an image carries over from one page of a bound publication across the gutter to the opposite page.
  • Cut flush - A method of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the pages.
  • Cutline - Also called a caption. The line or lines of text that refer to information identifying a picture or illustration.
  • Cutout - A halftone where the background has been removed to produce a silhouette.

D
  • Dagger and double dagger - Symbols used mainly as reference marks for footnotes.
  • Dampening - A necessary process in lithography of dampening the printing plate to prevent ink from spreading.
  • Dark field illumination - A method of checking the quality of halftone dots on film by viewing them in angled light against a dark background.
  • DCS - Desktop Color Separation. A file format which creates five PostScript files for each color image.
  • Deboss - To produce a sunken image in the surface of paper by means of a die striking above the paper into a counter die below the paper.
  • Deckle - Normally a text paper with an edge irregular in outline and decreased thickness. Frequently used for announcements. Made in cover or text weights.
  • Deckle edge - The untrimmed feather edge of paper that is produced at the edges of the web on the paper machine.
  • Deep-etch halftone - A halftone image from which unwanted screen dots have been removed, so that areas of plain paper will be left on the printed sheet.
  • Densitometer - A device sensitive to the density of light transmitted or reflected by paper or film. Used to check the accuracy, quality, and consistency of output.
  • Density - The degree of opacity of a photographic image on paper or film.
  • Descender - Any part of a lower case letter that extends below the x-height, as in the case of y and j.
  • Design phase - The process a project team uses for figuring out how to implement a new system. This phase is undertaken after the analysis phase is complete.
  • DHTML (dynamic HTML) - A variation of the HTML format that allows elements of Web pages to be changed while they are being viewed.
  • Die - A hardened steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image. Used in the production of good quality letter headings.
  • Die Cutting - The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes into printed sheets.
  • Digital - Files for printing that are produced on the computer.
  • Digital Camera - A camera that takes and stores a digital image instead of recording onto film.
  • Digitize - To convert non-digital information or media to a digital format through the use of a scanner, sampler, or other input device.
  • Dingbat - Tiny ornaments used to embellish printed text.
  • Display type - Larger type used for headings etc. Normally about 18 point or larger.
  • Dithering - The process of specifying color to adjacent pixels in order to simulate a third color in a bitmapped image. This technique is generally used when a full range of colors is not available.
  • Dot gain - A printing defect in which dots print larger than intended, causing darker colors or tones; due to the spreading of ink on stock. The more absorbent the stock, the more dot gain. Can vary by type of ink as well.
  • Dot loss - When the image on the printing plate is less, or sharper, than what is shown on the progressive proofs. (The opposite of dot gain.)
  • DPI - Dots per inch. A measure of output resolution produced by printers, imagesetters, or monitors.
  • Double bump - To print two layers of ink for a single image.
  • Double burn - To expose two or more film images onto a single film to create a composite image.
  • Double page spread - Two facing pages of newspaper or magazine where the textual material on the left hand side continues across to the right hand side. Abbreviated to DPS.
  • Drawn on - A method of binding a paper cover to a book by drawing the cover on and gluing to the back of the book.
  • Drop cap - A large initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the line or lines of text below.
  • Drop Shadow - A drop shadow gives an image depth by creating a shading offset behind a selected image.
  • Dry transfer (lettering) - Characters, drawings, etc, that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet. Best known is Letraset.
  • Dummy - A sketch of a page showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions.

E
  • Elliptical dot - A type of halftone screen dot with an elliptical rather than circular shape, which sometimes produces better tonal gradations.
  • Elliptical dot screen - A halftone screen with a graduated dot pattern that includeselliptical dots forming middle tones.
  • Em - A fixed space equal in size to the chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M which originally was as wide as the type size.
  • Embossing - A process performed after printing to stamp a raised (or depressed) image into the surface of paper, using engraved metal embossing dies, extreme pressure, and heat. Embossing styles include blind, deboss and foil-embossed.
  • Emulsion - The coating of light-sensitive material on a piece of film.
  • En - A fixed space that is half as wide as an em space.
  • End papers - The four page leaves at the front and end of a book which are pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).
  • EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) - A file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another. The preferred file format for saving images, as it is resolution independent, as opposed to TIFF.
  • Expanded type - A typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatter appearance.
  • Extended ASCII - Similar to ASCII but with 8-bit character representation instead of 7- bit, allowing for an additional 128 characters.